Other Previous Programmes

Economy and Society in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods


The Program focuses on the study of the socio-economic phenomena and the new institutions and relations developed in the Mediterranean under the dominance and influence of the Hellenistic kingdoms and subsequently of the Romans.

The aim of the program is to promote the historical research of the ancient Greek world, especially in the fields of the economy and the function of markets, the social structure of the Greek poleis and Roman colonies, the organization of the rural space, and civic religious life. The south-eastern Mediterranean regions, the Balkans and the Aegean in the Hellenistic and Roman periods are the main areas of interest for the members of the program. Special interest is given to the study and publication of the primary evidence (philological, epigraphic and numismatic sources and archaeological material) as well as to the fostering of projects which can serve as basic tools for further historical research (prosopography and onomastics, epigraphic and numismatic corpora). Additionally, the members of the Program participate in archaeological projects and fieldwork, especially in surveys and excavations.

History of the Programme

The Program “Economy and Society in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods” began as the “Southern Greece” Program by its former director A. Rizakis (1984-2010). The change occurred due to the shift of the research directions of its members towards a more economic-oriented historical approach. Anna Michailidou was director for the period 2011-2012 and since 2012, Ch. Papageorgiadou has been the Programs’ coordinator.

Panagiotis Doukelis, now Professor of Ancient Societies, Panteion University Athens, was member of the Program from 1987 to 1991. The same stands for Francesco Camia, now Associate Professor of Greek Epigraphy at Sapienza Università di Roma, from 2007 to 2015.


Charikleia Papageorgiadou, Research Director, Programme Coordinator
Sophia Zoumbaki, Research Director
Styliani (Lina) Mendoni, Minister of Culture and Sports since 9/7/2019
Vyron Antoniadis, Associate Researcher

Other Members

Research Directors Emeriti and Former Researchers
Anna Michailidou, Research Director Emeritus
Athanasios D. Rizakis, Research Director Emeritus

Franceso Camia (2007-2015), Associate Professor of Greek Epigraphy, Sapienza Università di Roma 
Panagiotis Doukellis (1987-1991), Professor of Ancient Societies, Panteion University Athens

External Collaborators

Franceso Camia, Associate Professor of Greek Epigraphy, Sapienza Università di Roma 
Mantha Zarmakoupi, Assistant Professor of Roman Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
Vaseilios Evangelidis, PhD Archaeology
Michalis Karabinis, PhD Archaeology
Elpida Kosmidou, PhD Archaeology
Vasilis Petrakis, PhD Archaeology 



Research Projects

A. Projects

1. "Numismatics and Economy", Ch. Papageorgiadou, Research Director
Α. Coinage and numismatic circulation in Greece during the Late Hellenistic Period and the numismatic policy of the Roman Republic in the Balkans.
Β. Coinage and economy in the Greek cities in the Roman Imperial Period
C. Finance of War 
D. The role of the small-scale economies in the Aegean from the Archaic to the Roman period

2. "Institutions, the social and economic organization of the Greek cities and the Roman colonies", Sophia Zoumbaki, Research Director
A. Social and geographical mobility and the role of foreigners in the Greek cities
B. The economy in the Roman province of Achaia (in collaboration with the Director Emeritus Dr A. Rizakis)
C. The relations between Greek poleis and the Roman central authorities, and especially the diffusion of Roman citizenship and Roman names
D. Prosopography and onomastics
E. The public buildings programs during the Roman period: finance and civic institutions  

3. "Polis and Chora: The economic and political organization of the rural space ", Lina Mendoni, Senior Researcher
Α. Rural space and polis of the ancient cities in the Cyclades, with ancient Karthaia being the fundamental case study
Β. The study of the rural settlements based on the material culture (Geomorphologic data, architectural remains, pottery etc.)
C. The interaction between the natural and cultural environment and the creation of the historic landscape.
D. The rural exploitation of the city-states and the agriculture production during the Hellenistic and Roman Periods.  
The ongoing archaeological investigation (survey and excavations) and the study of the archaeological evidence recovered from the “city” and “territory” of Ancient Kathraia (SW Kea) in collaboration with the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens constitutes an important part of this project

4. “Material Culture and Theoretical Approaches” Vyron Antoniadis, Associate Researcher
Α. The material culture and the ancient testimonies of the people of the Eastern Mediterranean during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Case study: Delos
Β. Tombs, burials and grave goods as possible indicators of wealth for ancient societies (Case studies: Hellenistic and Roman Epirus and Delos
C. Archaeological and economic theoretical approaches and the perceptions of Classical Antiquity by contemporary societies.
D. Database and applications (digital humanities) for the economy of the Hellenistic and Roman periods

5. "Religion, economy and society in the Roman period", common project
Α. The religious landscape of Roman Greece (cultic aspects, social dimensions, institutions). 
Β. Economic aspects of religious life in Greek cities. 
C. Aspects of religious identity in Greece in the Roman period (continuity, innovations, influences, syncretism)

6. “Epigraphic Investigations”, Sofia Zoumbaki and Lina Mendoni
Various ongoing projects on Epigraphy: Lina Mendoni studies the epigraphic evidence from Ioulis, Karthaia and Korissia at Kea and from the islands of Samos and Ikaria. Sophia Zoumbaki studies the inscribed tropaeum of Sulla.
In parallel, two ongoing projects are conducted by Directors Emeriti Dr Rizakis on the cultural identity in Roman times, and Dr Michailidou on the management of the metals and the laborers in the Mycenaean palaces as detected in the Grammar B' tablets.


B. Funded Research Projects

  • "RESEARCH - CREATE - INNOVATE" funded by the Operational Program "Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation" (NSRF 2014-2020) and co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund).

    1. "Development of a platform and multi-criteria application for the prediction, detection and management of climate risks in areas of major cultural and tourist interest - application for selected archaeological sites and monuments of the UNESCO World Heritage List" co‐financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH – CREATE - INNOVATE» (L. Mendoni)

    2. "Digital Routes in Greek History's Paths (RoGH)" co‐financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH – CREATE - INNOVATE» Scientific Coordinator: T. Kolias (V. Antoniadis).
  • “ANAVATHMIS” (2017-2020). Historical research and digital applications is implemented under the “Action for the Strategic Development on the Research and Technological Sector”, funded by the Operational Program "Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation" (NSRF 2014-2020) and co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund).

    1. Late Hellenistic hoards in Greece and the circulation of the Roman denarius (2nd to 1st c. BC) and a publication of a digital book (Ch. Papageorgiadou)
    2. Mobility and economic migration in the Mediterranean: Italiotes and Roman “entrepreneurs” in Greece (S. Zoumbaki, L. Mendoni)
    3. Organization of three workshops on the rural space and the farmsteads of Western Greece in the Roman period (V. Antoniadis, S. Zoumbaki, L. Mendoni, Ch. Papageorgiadou)
    4. The GIS and the study of the past: the case of Roman rural economy at Ancient Epirus (V. Antoniadis)
  • KRIPIS (2013 – 2015). “KYRTOY PLEGMATA”. Economic networks and networks of power and knowledge in Greece from the Prehistoric times to Modern Age: documentation – mapping – synthetic approaches/ (Program coordinator Τ. Κolias) financed by the Operational Program «Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship» (ΕΠΑΝ-ΙΙ), and the European Regional Development Fund (2007 – 2013).

    1. The Aegean systems of weight during the pre-coinage period of the Late Bronze Age (A. Michailidou)
    2. Olive oil routes in the Aegean during the Mycenaean period (14th-12th c. BC): Production and mobility of transport stirrup jars (A. Michailidou)
    3. Roman communication networks and imperial policy (Ch. Papageorgiadou)
    4. Νumismatic circulation and financial/commercial networks in the Eastern Mediterranean before the Christian era (Ch. Papageorgiadou, Ε. Μάρκου)
    5. The social and economic integration of Romans and Italians in the Greek cities. Networks of mobility of “entrepreneurs”, merchants and other professionals: The cases of Athens and the Ionian islands (S. Zoumbaki)
    6. Networks of saltworks in the Mediterranean from Antiquity to Early Modern Period (S.Zoumbaki, M. Gerolymatou, P. Michailaris, A. Panopoulou, Κ. Tsiknakis, Ε. Balta)
    7. The army as a network. The settlement of veterans in Thrace (F. Camia. G. Parisaki, Ch. Kokkinia)
  • EU PROGRAM: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF, Funding Scheme: Marie Curie Actions Intra European Fellowships (IEF) 2013-2015
     «Visualizing ancient urban networks», Dr Mantha Zarmakoupi
    (Mentor in the host institution (NHRF) of the EU Program: S. Zoumbaki).
  • THALES 2012-2015: Program co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF).

    1. Edition of Epigraphic sources and documentation of the history of Ancient Macedonia. (Ionian University, Scientific Coordinator, El.  Sverkos). Participation with the project “Sourcebook with a selection of translated and annotated inscriptions from Macedonia (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods)” (S. Zoumbaki)
    2. Island cultures in a diachronic perspective: The case of Therasia» (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Scientific Coordinator C. Palyvou). Study of the archaeological remains of Therasia based on survey and excavation. (S. Zoumbaki)
  • ARISTEIA ΙΙ, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greek Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, 3rd Community Support Framework (CSF) 1/12/2005-1/2/2008.

    1. Roman names in the Cyclades and publication of Monograph: Roman names in the Cyclades I, Athens 2008) (L. Mendoni, S. Zoumbaki)
    2. Economy and Trade Routes and publication of the Collective Volume:  Economy and Trade Routes in the Aegean, Athens 2008 (Ch. Papageorgiadou)
    3. KEA: Literay and Epigraphic testimonia and publication of digital Monograph entitled: ΚΕΑ: Φιλολογικές και Επιγραφικές Μαρτυρίες, Αθήνα 2008 (L. Mendoni)
  • ARISTEIA Ι, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greek Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, 3rd Community Support Framework (CSF). 1/3/2002-28/2/2005.
    Monograph: Prosopographie der Eleer bis zum 1. Jh. v. Chr. [2005]) (S. Zoumbaki)

Since 1991, the members of the Program have been also responsible for national and European research projects such as: PLATON, COST (The European Cooperation in Science and Technology), POPULUS in Human Capital and Mobility, Interreg III, Greece-Cyprus and the Operational Program “CompeTItiveness” (OPC).




Collaboration and participation in international projects and networks

The Program profits from a large network of collaborations, both at a national and at an international level in order to expand the research horizons and pursue further financial support. Members of the Program have participated in projects involving bilateral or international research collaboration.

  • Research Program: Magasín des Colonnes, Delos. French School at Athens. director: Dr Pavlos Karvonis. (Vyron Antoniadis: Director of the excavation and pottery specialist since 2015)
  • Research Program AXON, University of Venice. Digital collection of historic Greek inscriptions (F. Camia)
  • “Roman Seminar”. F. Camia, co-founder and member of the seminar’s committee
  • Société Internationale d'Études Néroniennes. S. Zoumbaki: National representative in the steering committee since 2012
  • War and political hegemony in a multipolar Mediterranean, cent. IV- I BCE.   Prof. T. Ñaco del Hoyo (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), Dr J. Principal (Archaeological Museum of Barcelona). S. Zoumbaki, Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • Copenhagen Associations Project¸ Copenhagen University, (coordinador: Vincent Gabrielsen) Inventory that collects and records all known attestations of private associations from the Greek-speaking world (S. Zoumbaki) (
  • “History of the landscape and local stories” 1995-1998: Teaching program for the secondary education of the Cyclades prefecture. Coordinated by the Sector of the Greek and Roman Antiquity (NHRF), the University of Aegean and the Greek Ministry of Environment (Scientific director: L. Mendoni)
  • Gladiatorial inscriptions in the Roman East, in the context of a program on the gladiatorial inscriptions in the provinces of the Roman Empire coordinated by G.L. Gregori, University of Rome “La Sapienza” (F. Camia, A.Rizakis, S. Zoumbaki)
  • Greco-Franco-Swiss program for the publication of inscriptions from the Roman colony of Philippi (S. Zoumbaki, F. Camia, Α. Rizakis)
  • International Research Program:  Civic Honours. The politics of honour in the Greek cities of Roman Imperial Times (Coordinators Onno Van Nijf [University of Groningen], Anna Heller [University of Tours], The program ended in 2014, F. Camia, S. Zoumbaki.
  • Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Athenarum. Italian School of Archaeology at Athens. (F. Camia)
  • Archaeological survey at Aigialeia (2012-2014) in collaboration with the 6th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and of the Italian School of Archaeology at Athens (Scientific director: F. Camia)
  • Interdisciplinary collaboration for the publication of Sulla’s Trophy in Orchomenos, Boeotia, Greece (S. Zoumbaki)
  • Archaeological survey at Karthaia (Scientific director: L. Mendoni)
  • Archaeological survey at south-east KEA (Scientific director: L. Mendoni)
  • Archaeological survey at Kea in collaboration with the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Scientific directors: L. Mendoni, Ch. Papageorgiadou)



Conferences and Events

Α. Organization of Conferences

  • International Conference, “4th International Association for Research on Pottery for the Hellenistic Period (IARPotHP) Conference” Athens 11-14/11/2019. Ch. Papageorgiadou, S. Zoumbaki
  • Workshop, "La circulation du denier romain en Grèce à l’époque hellénistique, INSTITUTE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH (NHRF) and French Archaeological School (journée d’études à l’EfA , 7/10/2016) (P. Marchetti). Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • Conference, «Δίκτυα στην Ιστορία από την αρχαιότητα έως τη σύγχρονη εποχή», ΚΡΗΠΙΣ, ΕΙΕ 11-13/12/2015 (Ο. Polykandrioti, Μ.Χ. Χατζηιωάννου, G. Tolias). Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • International Conference, "What's New in Roman Greece", INSTITUTE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH (NHRF) and Roman Seminar, Athens 8-10/10/2015 F. Camia
  • International Conference, «Νομίσματα και Συλλογές», KERA/NHRF and Numismatic Museum, Athens 27/11/2004. Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • Seminar Training course, for the teachers of the secondary education at Cyclades prefecture. History of the landscape and local stories: From the natural environment to the historic landscape. Ermoupoli, Syros 1997, L. Mendoni
  • International Conference, Numismatic archaeology, archaeological numismatics : proceedings of an international conference held to honour Dr. Mando Oeconomides in Athens 1995 (K. Sheedy, M.J. Price, Ι. Touratsoglou) Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • International Conference “Kea-Kythnos”, Kea-Kythnos 1994 in collaboration with the Ionian University (A. Mazarakis Ainian) L. Mendoni
  • International Conference «Structures Rurales et Societés Antiques», Kerkyra 1992 in collaboration with the Ionian University (P. Doukellis) L. Mendoni


Β. “Science in society” – NHRF public lectures

  • “Religion and money in Antiquity”, 5-19/12/2017. S. Zoumbaki
  • “The birth of the coin” in collaboration with the Numismatic Museum of Athens, 2017. Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • “Human form on ancient coins. Symbolism and ideology”, 2010. Ch. Papageorgiadou
  • “The Aegean Sea. Economy, trade, piracy and raiding throughout the centuries”, 2009. Ch. Papageorgiadou


The members of the Program actively participate as members of conference committees and in organizing seminars and workshops and teaching classes. They are also editors in various academic journals.



Α. ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ/meletemata

  • What’s New in Roman Greece? Recent Work on the Greek Mainland and the Islands in the Roman Period. Proceedings of a Conference held at Athens, 8-10 October 2015, Athens. V. Di Napoli, F. Camia, V. Evanghelidis, D. Grigoropoulos, D. Rogers, S. Vlizos (eds.), (forthcoming).
  • Social Dynamics under Roman Rule. Mobility and Status Change in the Provinces of Achaia and Macedonia, Proceedings of a conference held at the French School of Athens, 30-31 May 2014. A.D. Rizakis, F. Camia, S. Zoumbaki (eds) [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 74] Athens 2017
  • Villae Rusticae: Family and Market-oriented Farms in Greece under Roman Rule, Proceedings of an international congress held at Patras, 23-24 April 2010. A.D. Rizakis, I.P. Touratsoglou (eds.) [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 68] Athens 2013
  • Theoi Sebastoi. Il culto degli imperatori romani in Grecia (provincia Achaia) nel secondo secolo d.C. Camia Fr. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 65] Atene 2011
  • Roman Peloponnese III: Society, economy and culture under the Roman Empire: continuity and innovation. Rizakis Α.D., Lepenioti C. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 63] Athens 2010
  • Weight and Value in Pre-Societies: vol.II. Sidelights on measurement from the Aegean and the Orient. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 61] Athens 2008
  • Roman names in the Cyclades. Part I. Mendoni L.G., and, Zoumbaki S.B. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 56] Athens 2008
  • Achaie III. Les cites acheennes: epigraphie et histoire. Rizakis A.D.
    [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 55] Athenes 2008
  • Sailing in the Aegean: Readings on the Economy and Trade Routes. Charikleia Papageorgiadou-Banis and Angeliki Giannikouri (eds). [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 53] Athens 2008
  • Les Dieux et les Dieux Augustes: le culte imperial en Grece sous les Julio-claudiens et les Flaviens: etudes epigraphiques et archeologiques. Maria Kantirea. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 50] Athenes 2007
  • Weight and Value in Pre-Coinage Societies: an introduction. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 42] Athens 2005
  • Prosopographie der Eleer bis zum 1. Jh. v. Chr. Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 40] Athen 2005
  • The Numismatic Iconography of the Roman Colonies in Greece: Local Spirit and the Expression of Imperial Policy. Papageorgiadou-Bani H. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 39] Athens 2004
  • Perceptions and Evaluation of the Cultural Landscapes. Proceedings of an International Symposium (Zakynthos, December 1997). Doukellis P., Mendoni L. (eds) [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 38] Athens 2004
  • Roman Peloponnese II: Roman Personal Names in their Social Context (Laconia and Messenia). Rizakis Α.D., Zoumbaki S., Lepenioti C. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 36] Athens 2004
  • Manufacture and Measurement: Counting, Measuring and Recording Craft Items in Early Aegean Societies. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 33] Athens 2001
  • Elis und Olympia in der Kaiserzeit. Das Leben einer Gesellschaft zwischen Stadt und Heiligtum auf prosopographischer Grundlage. Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 32] Athen 2001
  • Roman Peloponnese I: Roman personal names in their social context (Achaia, Arcadia, Argolis, Corinthia and Eleia). Rizakis A.D., Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 31] Athens 2001
  • Αχαϊκό τοπίο ΙΙ. Δύμη και Δυμαία χώρα - Paysages d'Achaie II. Dyme et son territoire. Actes du colloque international ''Dymaia et Bouprasia'' (Kato Achaia, 6-8 octobre 1995). Rizakis A.D. (ed) [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 29] Athenes 2000
  • KEA-KYTHNOS: History and Archaeology, Proceedings of an International Symposium, 22-25 June 1994, Kea-Kythnos. Mendoni L.G., Mazarakis-Ainian A.J. (eds) [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 27] Athens 1998
  • Achaie II. La cite de Patras: epigraphie et histoire, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 25] Athenes 1998
  • The coinage of Kea, Papageorgiadou-Banis Ch. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 24] Athens 1997
  • Achaie I. Sources textuelles et histoire regionale, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 20] Athenes 1995
  • Paysages d'Achaie I: le bassin du Peiros et la plaine occidentale, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 15] Athenes 1992
  • Achaia und Elis in der Antike, Rizakis A.D. Akten des 1. Internationalen Symposiums, Athen, 19-21 Mai 1989 [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 13] Athen 1991



  • Reflections sur la circulation des monnaies romaines republiqaines. Les quadrigats en Occident et les deniers en Grece/Orient.Ch. Papageorgiadou, P. Marchetti, (forthcoming)
  • Obeloi. Contatti, scambi e valori nel Mediterraneo antico. Studi offerti a Nicola Parise (Tekmeria 11), Paestum 2009, F. Camia, S. Privitera (eds.) 2009
  • Patrasso colonia di Augusto e le trasformazioni culturali, politiche ed economiche della Provincia di Acaia agli inizi dell' eta imperiale romana: atti del Convegno Internazionale, Patrasso 23-24 marzo 2006. (Tripodes 8), 2009.
  • Pathways to Power. Civic Elites in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire (Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Athens, Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene, 19 December  2005) (Tripodes 6), A.D. Rizakis, F. Camia (eds.), Athens 2008.
  • Νομισματικό Μουσείο. Η δωρεά Ζαρίφη / Athens Numismatic Museum. The Zarifis donation Ch. Papageorgiadou, (Athens 2006).
  • Κυκλάδες. Ιστορία του Τοπίου και Τοπικές Ιστορίες. L. Mendoni, N. Margaris (eds.) Υ.ΠΕ.ΧΩ.Δ.Ε και ΕΙΕ/ΚΕΡΑ, Athens 1998.     
  • Ιστορία του Τοπίου και Τοπικές Ιστορίες. Από το φυσικό περιβάλλον στο ιστορικό τοπίο. Πιλοτική Εφαρμογή στις Κυκλάδες. Ενδεικτική βιβλιογραφία. L. Mendoni (ed.) [Συνέκδοση Υ.ΠΕ.ΧΩ.Δ.Ε και ΕΙΕ/ΚΕΡΑ, Athens 1997.
  • ''Numismatic Archaeology-Archaeological Numismatics'', Proceedings of an International Conference held to honour Dr. Mando Oeconomides in Athens 1995, Ch. Papageorgiadou, K.A. Sheedy,Oxbow Monograph 75, 1997.




The program's researchers are actively involved in educational and academic activities, such as teaching at universities, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level, summer courses, lectures and seminars and they supervise MA dissertations and PhD theses, student internships and Erasmus students.









© National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), 48 Vassileos Constantinou Ave., 11635 Athens, Greece, Tel. +302107273700, Fax. +302107246618